Black Clouds in Manila, a novel by Tessie Jayme
by Tessie Jayme
Black Clouds in Manila
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Here is a selection of information I've collected about the American Red Cross during my research for Black Clouds in Manila!

Red Cross in Manila:

Arriving U.S. Army Nurses and the Red Cross in Manila are excitedly welcomed by nurses that
had been internees at Santo Tomas for the past 3 years
Manila, Philippines, Feb. 1945

U.S. Army nurses ride through the streets of Manila on their way to take over for army nurse
POWs recently liberated at Santo Tomas Internment Camp. The Japanese imprisoned 78 military nurses and
thousands of U.S. civilian women and children in the Philippines during World War II.

Manila, Philippines, February 1945

When Corregidor and Bataan fell in 1942, there were 11 US Navy nurses and 66 Army nurses who were captured
along with the American and Filipino forces, and imprisoned in and around the city of Manila. These 77 women
became known as the Angels of Bataan (sometimes even referred to as the Battling Belles of Bataan) who,
despite being prisoners of war, continued to serve as an active nursing unit until their liberation in February 1945.

Manila, Philippines, February 1945

A volunteer of the Red Cross Motor Corps, at the loading of the Gripsholm, painting the destination on
boxes of clothing, food etc. for prisoners of war in Japan and the Far East.

Mariefred, Sweden 1944

The battle to liberate of Manila, the scene of one of the bloodiest battles of World War II in the Pacific theater,
was waged from February 3 to March 3, 1945. This photo shows the arrival of the trucks with the
prisoners freed from Cabanatuan, a city in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
Cabanatuan, Philippines March 1945

Filipina women assemble the Red Cross ditty bags with hot coffee and doughnuts and "ditty" bags full of comforts -
toilet articles, writing equipment, smokes, candy, gum - to further bolster the already soaring spirits of the men.
Manila, Philippines, during WWII

The contents of an American Red Cross standard food package.

By the time World War II ended in September 1945, the American public had contributed over $784 million in 
support of the American Red Cross. Nearly every family in America contained a member who had either served as a 
Red Cross volunteer, made contributions of money or blood, or was a recipient of Red Cross services.

Memorable Quotes during WWII:

"The Red Cross, with its clubs for recreation, its coffee and
doughnuts in the forward areas, its readiness to meet the
needs of the well and to help minister to the wounded . . .
has often seemed to be the friendly hand of this nation,
reaching across the sea to sustain its fighting men."

Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, Address to Congress,
June 18, 1945

"Six thousand units of plasma went ashore at Tarawa [and]
4,000 of them came back in the veins of wounded marines.
At least half of the seriously wounded owe their lives to plasma."

Captain Robert French Moore, Medical Corps,
United States Navy, recipient of the Legion of Merit
and Purple Heart Medal 1943

"Dear Pop and Dorothy, I have written this before, but I will write
it again. I’m a prisoner of war and well and O.K. I have enough
to eat due to the Red Cross. I want you to get $100 of my
money and donate it to the American Red Cross.
You cannot imagine how much they do for us….

Technical Sergeant Maynard Unger, Aug. 17, 1943

“I may be compelled to face danger, but never fear it, and while
our soldiers can stand and fight, I can stand and feed and nurse them.

Clara Barton, American Civil War Nurse,
Founder of the American National Red Cross, 1821-1912

“During American Red Cross Month, we honor those who devote themselves to bringing relief where there is suffering, inspiring hope where there is despair, and healing the wounds of disaster and war... American Red Cross workers, alongside countless humanitarian organizations and caring volunteers, deliver life-saving assistance in every corner of our Nation and all across the globe.”

President Barack Obama 
Proclaiming March as Red Cross Month
March 01, 2014

Military and Naval Welfare Service

American Red Cross workers provided assistance to all servicemen and
women wherever they were stationed or deployed at home and overseas.
Services were also extended, with limitations, to some civilian groups,
such as the merchant marines, civilian pilots in the Army Transport Command,
and to the armed forces of the Allies when they were in the United States
or serving with the U.S. military. Military and Naval Welfare Service was
basically of three kinds: Camp, Club, and Hospital.

Camp Service

Camp Service was conducted by field directors and assistant field
directors assigned to, and often living with, the armed forces.
Their primary service included giving counsel and guidance to
servicemen and women by providing a means of communication
between members of the armed forces and their families at home.

Club Service

Club Service was made available at the request of the U.S.
government to able-bodied members of the armed forces serving
overseas, while recreational services for the military at home
remained, as it had been, limited to hospitals. Overseas the Red Cross
staffed and supplied permanent service clubs, travelling clubmobiles,
and other recreational facilities that stretched around the world.

Hospital Service

Hospital Service consisted of social service and recreational
programs for patients in military hospitals at home and abroad.
Most military hospitals were staffed with a resident Red Cross unit
that included a medical social worker, a recreation worker, a
secretary, and additional workers and volunteers as needed
and as they were available.

Service in Veterans Hospitals
In August 1945, the Red Cross began its Service in Veterans
Hospitals (SVH) to meet the needs of a growing number of
Veterans Administration hospitals and an expanding patient load.
SVH returned paid workers to the hospitals mainly to guide an
increasing number of volunteers in providing patients with a
diversified set of services, everything from recreational programs to
Gray Ladies running errands for veterans and Nurse's Aides
making beds and feeding patients.

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